BIRDING AROUND THE WORLD

Subtitle

SURVEY of the BIRDS of BILSA BIOLOGICAL RESERVE, ECUADOR          September 1996

SUMMARY

A survey of the birds in Jatun Sacha Bilsa Reserve, situated in the Mache-Chindul hills of northwest Ecuador (0° 22' N, 79° 45' W), was undertaken in September 1996 by Karl Berg, Jon Hornbuckle and Andrew Mudd. Although the third such survey in the region, it was the first to be carried out in the “dry” season and to employ mist-netting. The presence of a number of Andean species and Chocó endemics was confirmed, and 34 species added to the Reserve list including the rare Banded Ground-Cuckoo, Indigo-crowned Quail-Dove and Tooth-billed Hummingbird. 

Introduction

The wet Pacific forest of northwest Ecuador is one of the most biologically diverse and threatened ecosystems on earth.  The importance of the forests which still remain lies in the large number of species and high levels of endemism which they support.  It has been estimated that 6300 species of vascular plants occur in western Ecuador as a whole, of which 20% may be endemic (Dodson and Gentry, 1991).  Birds show comparable levels of species richness and endemism, with more than 800 species known to occur in western Ecuador.  The region encompasses two important areas of bird endemism - the Tumbesian which contains 45 species and the Chocóan which has 53 endemics (Best and Kessler, 1995).  BirdLife International considers 15 species which occur primarily in western Ecuador to be threatened with extinction (Collar et al., 1994).

The hills of Mache and Chindul, which lie at the northern end of the coastal hill range, contain the last relatively extensive tract of tropical humid forest in the coastal region.  The area was the subject of a reconnaissance visit by one of the expedition members in 1991, when it was estimated that about 100 square kilometres of undisturbed forest still remained (Mudd, 1991).  The area was being deforested at an alarming rate, with perhaps 50% having been cleared between 1980 and 1991. Also in 1991, the Rapid Assessment Program team of Conservation International spent nearly six days surveying the Cabaceras de Bilsa on the western side of the Mache hills (Parker & Carr, 1992). They found the forest to be rich in birds, with ca.160 species, and to contain a number of tree taxa new to Ecuador including one in a genus new to science (Gentry, 1992) 

In 1994 Fundacion Jatun Sacha established a small biological reserve in the Mache hills. It was called  Bilsa, although some 25 km south-east of Cabeceras de Bilsa, and has been expanded since then, with Jatun Sacha continuing to be actively engaged in land purchase.  The new station serves as a field-centre both for Jatun Sacha's own botanical work, and for studies by a range of other field scientists. A visual and audial survey of the birds and large mammals, involving 260 field hours, was undertaken in February 1994 by Project Esmeraldas 94, a team of Cambridge University students (Clay et al., 1994). 

The climate of the Mache-Chindul region is seasonally rainy, but the higher hills, which reach up to about 700 m, are cloud-covered and wet all year round.  Of this type of wet/moist forest which once covered 55% of western Ecuador, less than 5% remained in 1988 (C.I.D.E., 1989) and the figure is now variously estimated as between only 1 and 3% (World Parks Endowment, in litt.).  At the highest elevations the vegetation is characterised by a profusion of epiphytes, climbers and mosses, forming a type of cloud forest which is unusual for this relatively low altitude.

The Bilsa Biological Reserve now occupies about 2100 ha within the last relatively extensive block of forest in the northern coastal hills.  Plans to extend the reserve to 5000 ha will encompass virtually all the remaining primary forest here.  The Reserve occupies the headwaters of the rivers Dógola, Cube and Aguacatal with an elevation ranging from about 350 m to 700 m.  Cerro de los Guerilleros, lying on the north side of the Dógola river and which is probably the highest hill in the region (725 m), is now mostly within the reserve.   The Station itself is at about 550 m.  The terrain is extremely steep and muddy but several trails criss-cross the area.  Some of those nearest the Station have been marked out and colour-coded.  The Yellow Trail descends to the headwaters of the Rio Dógola from 600 m to 350 m;  the Red and Green Trails both descend into the Aguacatal valley - the Red Trail from 650 m to 500 m and the Green Trail from 550 m to 400 m.  The Blue Trail links the two.  There is also a short path to the headwaters of the Rio Cube (Piscinas Trail).  Most of the Reserve is ‘primary’ forest although there are areas of secondary forest and scrub, particularly close to the Station itself, which is being replanted with ‘primary’ forest species.

Objectives

1. To undertake a rapid evaluation of the birds present, to show the biological importance of the reserve with respect to species diversity, richness and endemism.

2. To determine the conservation status of any endemic taxa considered to be globally threatened.

3. To use the results to increase awareness of the potential losses to Ecuador and the world if this region is not adequately protected. 

Methods

Two basic methods were employed - observations, both visual and audial, and mist-netting. Some 300 man-hours of fieldwork was expended by the two experienced team members (JH and KB), each with over a year of field experience in South America, between 5th and 29th September. 

The majority of observations were made from forest trails, one or more of which were traversed daily. A limited time was also spent in overlooking the canopy during the rare periods of clear weather, either from the road bordering the Reserve or the veranda of the Field Director’s house. A few hours were spent observing from a high platform in the canopy, but without great reward. Although heavy rain was exceptional, visibilty was frequently poor due to thick mist, especially during the first hours of daylight. Nocturnal work was minimal due to the generally inclement weather at night and the hazardous condition of the forest trails. There was normally a total absence of moonlight.

A number of mist-netting stations were established, involving 70 m of nets in representative habitats. They were operated most days for 11-12 hours from dawn till dusk, except when moved between sites which happened every two to four days. Most birds caught were banded with metal rings kindly donated by the Copenhagen Museum, except for hummingbirds and many emberizimae,which were identified by clipping a tail feather.  Almost all the birds were weighed and their wing length recorded, and one or more representatives were photographed.

Lengthy discussions were held with Jatun Sacha staff, particularly the Reserve Guards, to learn from their experience.

Results

The survey recorded 200 species, as detailed in Appendix 1, adding 34 species to the Reserve list, including the globally Threatened Banded Ground-Cuckoo the Near-threatened Red-masked Parakeet and the scarce Indigo-crowned Quail-Dove, Tooth-billed Hummingbird and Ocellated Antbird. The complete list of 260 species is presented in Appendix 2, coded for status and abundance. 

A total of five species Threatened with extinction, according to BirdLife International (Collar et al., 1994), were located, along with seven Near-threatened species, all of which are discussed below. Two more Chocó endemics, according to BirdLife International criteria, were added to the Bilsa list, plus a further four species largely restricted to the Chocó region, giving a total of 29 such species. This compares to only four Tumbesian endemics found in the Reserve.

A total of 488 birds was trapped by mist-netting and the majority ringed. Details are summarised in Appendix 3. Eight of the 89 species involved, including Tooth-billed Hummingbird and Orange-fronted Barbet, were not recorded by any other means. 

Because of the timing of the survey, there was very little breeding activity and no North American migrants (cf. at least 3 species reported by Clay et al. and 5 by the RAP team at Cabeceras de Bilsa). Only 14 diurnal raptor species were noted, compared to the 21 by Clay et al., largely attributable to the unfavourable weather conditions. Understorey and canopy flocks were few in number, whereas at Cabeceras de Bilsa they were reported to be numerous, although this was in January, at the start of the wet season.

Notes on mammals are given in Appendix 4. Few species were recorded but the presence of a large and apparently safe population of the Threatened (IUCN) Mantled Howler Monkey Alouatta palliata was reconfirmed.  

Selected Species Accounts

TINAMOU Species  Crypturellus sp.

A dark, medium-sized tinamou seen in primary forest was thought to be Berlepsch's Tinamou, C. berlepschi, but the possibility of it being a dark Little Tinamou C.soui cannot be ruled out. According to the Reserve Guards, tinamous of three sizes are present in the reserve; C. berlepschi is the obvious candidate for the mid-size bird. However, as this species is poorly known and rarely seen, with voice unrecorded, stronger evidence is required before its presence can be accepted.

TINY HAWK  Accipiter superciliosus

Surprisingly visible, considering it is stated to be “uncommon to rare” in Colombia (Hilty & Brown, 1986) and was recorded as scarce by Clay et al. A male of unusual appearance was caught on 10th and subsequently returned to pose for photographs atop a tree at the station. It was essentially a rufous-phase bird but with a small proportion of grey-brown feathers present (Plates 4 & 5).  Two were also seen perched by the road on 23rd.         

PLUMBEOUS HAWK  Leucopternis plumbea

The single record of this Near-threatened, poorly known species can be added to the one of  Clay et al. (1994). Parker et al. (1992) also recorded it at Cabeceras de Bilsa, although classing it as rare.  The combined results indicate that it may be fairly widespread in the Mache hills, especially when its cryptic nature is considered.

BARRED HAWK  Leucopternis princeps

Another westerly species with a restricted range, occurring from Costa Rica to northwest Peru but not dependent on extensive forest and therefore not thought to be at risk (del Hoyo et al., 1994). In Ecuador only known from the Andes and foothills (R.S. Ridgely in litt.) until reported at Bilsa by Clay et al. At least two birds were very noisy and active throughout our stay.

GREY-BACKED HAWK  Leucopternis occidentalis

This Endangered species should be readily seen when present, although the weather during the survey was rarely suitable for soaring. Our single record with that of Clay et al., show that it is present but probably in very small numbers. This area is likely to be at the northern limit of its basically Tumbesian range but could become an important refuge if sufficient forest can be preserved, as there are few sites left in its range with enough forest to support a viable population. 

BARRED FOREST-FALCON, Micrastur ruficollis

With several sightings and three caught (one twice), this species, which is often heard more than seen, is evidently not scarce at Bilsa, at least at this time of year, despite not being recorded by Clay et al.

BAUDO GUAN  Penelope ortoni

Although not recorded by us, this Vulnerable species is definitely present according to the Reserve Guards. It is said to be very rare throughout its range in humid and wet forest in the tropical and lower subtropical zones of Ecuador and western Colombia (Collar et al., 1994).

CRESTED GUAN  Penelope purpurascens

A scarce bird in Ecuador (R.S. Ridgely in litt.) but not so at Bilsa, judged by the number of times we heard it - additional confirmation of the pristine status of the forest here and absence of serious hunting activity.

BROWN WOOD-RAIL   Aramides wolfi

Only known from Rio Palenque in Ecuador in recent times (R.S. Ridgely in litt.) until heard at Bilsa on two occasions by Clay et al., this species is classed as Vulnerable. It has not been recorded at all since 1977 from the rest of its known range, although would be easily overlooked due to its secretive nature. Hence our audial records on two occasions indicate Bilsa may be an important refuge for this barely- known species.  

INDIGO-CROWNED QUAIL-DOVE  Geotrygon purpurata

Infrequently seen in Colombia (Hilty & Brown, 1986) and rare in northwest Ecuador, our records of this Chocó endemic, a recent split from Sapphire Quail-Dove G. saphirina from east of the Andes (R.S. Ridgely in litt.), appear to be the first for the Mache Chindul hills. The fact that we saw birds in both primary and secondary forest and that they were not particularly shy, indicates the Reserve may be an important home to another scarce species. 

RED-MASKED PARAKEET  Aratinga erythrogenys

This Near-threatened Tumbesian endemic was only encountered in the Dógola. Valley at a lower elevation than the core of the reserve. Bilsa must be near the northern limit of its range and it was not recorded here by the RAP team or Clay et al.

RED-LORED PARROT  Amazona autumnalis

As the Ecuadorian taxon A.a. lilacina is almost endemic and quite scarce (R.S. Ridgely in litt.), our confirmation of its presence at Bilsa is important.

BANDED GROUND-CUCKOO  Neomorphus radiolosus

The two records of this Endangered species were separated by nine days and at least 3 km. The first was in a partly replanted, fairly open area close to the station and initially seen walking along a cleared patch between sapplings and then heard bill-snapping in the adjacent undergrowth, entirely alone. The second, presumably different bird, was in primary forest feeding with antbirds in association with an army antswarm. It was watched for nearly an hour in total at various times of the day as close as 6-7 m with the single observer in full view. It spent long periods perched almost motionless, either on the ground or a fallen log, sometimes raising or lowering its crest, sporadically dashing a short distance to grab an insect disturbed by the ants. In contrast to the accompanying and more active Gymnopithys leucaspis and Phaenostictus mcleannani antbirds, it was silent throughout. It narrowly avoided a mist-net on one occasion. The antswarm was located on the following two days in the same general area but the Ground-Cuckoo not seen, although it could have been there as little time was spent observing the swarm, it being in a less accessible locality.

In terms of records, this is one of the rarest birds resident in Ecuador with one near Alto Tambo on 13-15 February 1992 (N. Krabbe in litt.), the only report since 1936. The only other recent records published are three in Colombia in 1988/89 (Collar et al., 1992), but local hunters in Narino in the 1990s reported it as fairly common at two localities, with its “extreme shyness” blamed for the paucity of records (Collar et al., 1994). The latter view is not supported by our experience.

TOOTH-BILLED HUMMINGBIRD   Androdon aequatorialis

The only record of this generally rare Chocó endemic with an extraordinary serrated bill is the one mist-netted in primary forest. It should have been possible to sex or age this bird on plumage but the latter was at variance with descriptions in Hilty and Brown (1986): the crown was blue with prominent pale blue speckles, the nape blue and the rump tipped blue beyond a copper patch; the central tail feather was not white-tipped like the other tail feathers; the underparts were very heavily streaked  blackish; in addition the long bill was slightly upturned, not straight as described.

While obviously not common, the lack of observations of this distinctive looking bird does not necessarily mean it is very scarce, because fast-flying forest hummingbirds can be very difficult to detect - as an example, Clay et al rarely observed the relatively slow-flying White-tipped Sicklebill, Eutoxeres aquila, whereas our mist-netting showed it to be common. More intensive mist-netting needs to be done to establish whether Bilsa has a significant population of this unusual bird.

ORANGE-FRONTED BARBET  Capito squamatus

Another poorly-known Chocó endemic only found by mist-netting. However, this had been reported by Clay et al. and is probably easily overlooked unless its call is known, although classed by BirdLife as Near-threatened.

CHOCO TOUCAN  Ramphastos brevis

Another Near-threatened species, but this time fairly obvious when present. As expected in this habitat, it was not uncommon, small numbers being heard daily.

CHOCO WOODPECKER  Veniliornis chocoensis

The single records of this Near-threatened Chocó endemic (a split from V.affinis) and the trans-Andean Lita Woodpecker Piculus litae (split from P.leucolaemus) confirm Clay et al.’s findings that Bilsa is the southernmost locality for these species (R.S. Ridgely in litt.).

RED-FACED SPINETAIL  Cranioleuca erythrops

Another predominantly west Andean species, but with an isolated population on the coastal cordillera well south of Esmeraldas (Ridgely and Tudor, 1994). Our discovery of the species at Bilsa extends the range of the latter population substantially further north.

TAWNY-THROATED LEAFTOSSER, Sclerurus mexicanus

Our finding of the presence of this wide-ranging species is not surprising, but it is generally rare to locally uncommon in humid forest (Ridgely and Tudor, 1994).

OCELLATED ANTBIRD  Phaenostictus mcleannani

Together with Gymnopithys leucaspis, this was the prominent member of the primary forest antswarm party, observed on the Green Trail several times, with seven ringed there in two days and probably others present. The only other sighting was in August 1995 (D. Willis, in litt.). Bilsa is at the southern limit of this obligate antbird’s Pacific slope range - it has ecently been found a little further south at pedro Vicente Maldonado in Pichincha (P. Coopmans, pers. comm.). According to Ridgely and Tudor (1994), the species is uncommon with usually only a few, almost always wary, at an antswarm. Hence our birds, which were not particularly wary, were perhaps exceptionally numerous. 

SCALED FRUITEATER  Ampelioides tschudii

Another Andean bird initially found by Clay et al. with a single record of 2 birds at Bilsa, and stated to occur at 1500-3100 m, rarely to 900 m in Colombia (Hilty and Brown, 1986). Once its inconspicuous high-pitched song had been recognized, we found it to be not infrequent in the canopy - an encouraging result for a species listed as Near-threatened.

BLACK-TIPPED COTINGA  Carpodectes hopkei

Previous observers have noted this species as common within the reserve, but we had fewer sightings. As four birds (including three males) were seen below the Reserve, perhaps some move to lower elevations at this time of year. Noted by Hilty and Brown as ocurring rarely above 300 m which, given its predominantly Chocóan distribution where very little lowland forest remains, is presumably why it is classed as Near-threatened.

SPECKLED MOURNER  Laniocera rufescens

A rare bird in Ecuador, at about its southern limit (R.S. Ridgely in litt.), with singles recorded by Byron Swift and now by us.

LONG-WATTLED UMBRELLABIRD  Cephalopterus penduliger

The discovery of a significant population of this Vulnerable species was one of the highlights of the survey by Clay et al., and other observers have noted it as fairly common at Bilsa.  The fact that we only saw a single bird indicates that it may be a local migrant, eg. going to lower altitudes in the dry season or to fruiting trees further away, possibly like the previous species, although its known habits suggest that it is more closely dependent on cloud forest than is Carpodectes.  Jatun Sacha staff were very familiar with it and reported that it fed on palm nuts at least some of the time.

MANAKINS

With six species of manakin located, including P. coronata for the first time, the forest is clearly rich in suitable fruits. None of the species is unexpected, but Green Manakin Chloropipo holochlora, one of the three most frequently caught species, is “infrequently encountered and not well known” (Ridgely and Tudor, 1994). A feature of Golden-winged Manakin Masius chrysopterus was that full-plumage adult males were almost only trapped at the highest netting station (650-700 m), whereas female and immature birds were frequently caught at lower elevations. This is essentially an Andean species, occurring mostly at 1200-2300 m, down to 600 m on the Pacific slope (Ridgely and Tudor, 1994).

WHITE-THROATED SPADEBILL  Platyrinchus mystaceus

The single record (one trapped at 550 m) of this essentially montane species in Ecuador, extends the range of the isolated population on the coastal cordillera northwards from southwest Manabi (Ridgely and Tudor, 1994), as with Red-faced Spinetail. The fact that only one bird was caught indicates the population to be small as this species is often mist-netted in some numbers when present elsewhere.    

ORNATE FLYCATCHER  Myiotriccus ornatus

First found by Clay et al., this is another species of the Andes and foothills, and unlike some of the others such as the preceding species, is fairly common and widespread at Bilsa.

SLATY BECARD  Pachyramphus spodiurus

Both Clay et al. and ourselves had one or two sightings of becards thought to be this species. However, in view of its similarity to P. homochrous, and the fact that these records would probably constitute a northern range extension of this Near-threatened Tumbesian endemic, there is still some doubt about its occurrence here.

SPOTTED NIGHTINGALE-THRUSH  Catharus dryas

Yet another range extension of a montane species, seen or heard at a few localities in the primary forest, and so apparently not rare here.

WHITE-THROATED THRUSH  Turdus assimilis

Only observed once, this foothill species was probably overlooked, due to its shyness, judging by the not infrequently heard strong ‘sweet’, thrush-like song, suspected to be from this species. It is at the southern limit of its range, which is Chocóan in South America (Ridgely and Tudor, 1989).

TAWNY-CRESTED TANAGER  Tachyphonus delatrii

A tanager caught alone was initially unidentified but eventually diagnosed to be an immature of this species (Plate 15). There was no evidence of moult, although most of the tail was missing, or of a golden tawny crown patch, said to be present in some immature males according to Ridgely and Tudor (1989), who describe females as uniform olive brown. The head and underparts were uniform olive brown, a little darker on the belly, but the rest of the plumage was chocolate-black, except for the wing feathers which were edged with olive brown. Bill and legs were black.

Discussion

The results of the survey have reinforced the view that the Bilsa reserve is of international importance, hosting at least 11 and probably 13 species in the World List of Threatened Birds, including four or five globally Threatened (Collar et al., 1994).  At least one additional Threatened species may be expected in the area, namely Ochraceous Attila  Attila torridus, which was found at Cabeceras de Bilsa.  Other scarce species may also be found in the future, such as Pacific Royal Flycatcher  Onychorhynchus occidentalis, Scarlet-breasted Dacnis  Dacnis berlepschi, Scarlet-browed Tanager  Heterospingus xanthopygius and Scarlet-and-white Tanager  Erythrothlypis salmoni.

The avifauna is clearly very diverse, with at least 260 species, and a high level of endemism at 13% (including Chocó ‘near-endemics’). Most of the endemics have ranges restricted to the Chocó region, i.e. extreme eastern Panama through western Colombia south to northwest Ecuador (Collar et al., 1992), one of the most threatened endemic centres in the Neotropics due to widespread deforestation. The Chocó influence is to be expected as the region is characterised by wet and humid lowland forest, as at Bilsa, whereas Tumbesian forest is generally much drier. What was not anticipated originally was the Andean element of the avifauna: range extensions have been found for at least 19 species previously thought to be restricted to the Andes or further south in the Coastal Cordillera, namely Barred Hawk Leucopternis princeps, Blue-fronted Parrotlet Touit dilectissima, Green-crowned Brilliant Heliodoxa jacula, White-eyed Trogon Trogon comptus, Red-faced Spinetail Cranioleuca erythrops, Scaled Fruiteater Ampelioides tschudii, Long-wattled Umbrellabird Cephalopterus penduliger, Golden-winged Manakin Masius chrysopterus, White-throated Spadebill Platyrinchus mystaceus, Ornate Flycatcher Myiotriccus ornatus, Spotted Nightingale-Thrush Catharus dryas, Choco Warbler Basileuterus chlorophrys, Chestnut-capped Brush-Finch Atlapetes brunneinucha, Yellow-throated Bush-Tanager Chlorospingus flavigularis, Ochre-breasted Tanager Chlorothraupis stolzmanni, Emerald Tanager Tangara florida, Silver-throated Tanager Tangara icterocephala and Black-winged Saltator Saltator atripennis.                                                                                  

Hence the Bilsa surveys have made a significant contribution to knowledge of the distribution of bird species in northwest Ecuador.

Recommendations

The most important action must be to continue to protect and expand the Reserve, as Jatun Sacha has so successfully done thus far, and to continue to strive for government commitment to establish protected status for all the remaining forest in the Mache Chindul hills. International support for the latter should continue to be vigorously sought.

The following ornithological priorities are recommended:

1. To study the ecology of the Banded Ground-Cuckoo, to determine possible reasons for its rarity and what can be done to assist its survival.

2. To continue to survey the avifauna, especially in the new parts of the Reserve and at different times of year, e.g. to determine whether altitudinal movement occurs. Production of new trails would be an advantage here.

3. To establish a systematic mist-netting and banding programme, throughout the year, which should yield interesting results.

The accommodation facilities at the Station were being upgraded as we left, a better washing facility being a high priority. Another useful move, to attract more visitors and thereby bring in more money, would be to improve the condition of the trails, e.g. by putting in boardwalks over the most hazardous stretches.

Acknowledgements

Mache-Chindul 1996 (formerly Mache-Chindul 1995) was partly funded by a BirdLife International/FFPS BP Conservation Expedition Award whose generosity is acknowledged.  Thanks are also particularly due to the staff of BirdLife International both in Cambridge and Quito, Fundación Ornitológica del Ecuador, who facilitated the necessary permits, Mike McColm, the director of Fundación Jatun Sacha, Cyrus Bramme the field director at the Bilsa station, and to other Jatun Sacha staff at Bilsa. Jon Fjeldså and Jan Bolding Kristensen (Centre for Tropical Diversity, Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen) kindly provided the metal rings used in the mist-netting fieldwork. We are also grateful to Robert Ridgely, Paul Coopmans and Brinley Best for commenting on an earliear version of the report and making important contributions to the accuracy of the text. 

References    

Best, B.J. and Kessler, M. (1995) Biodiversity and conservation in Tumbesian Ecuador and Peru. Cambridge U.K., BirdLife International.

C.I.D.E (1989) An assessment of biological diversity and tropical forests for Ecuador. Report by Center for International Development and Environment for USAID/Ecuador.

Clay, R.P., Jack, S.R. and Vincent, J.P. (1994) A survey of the birds and large mammals of the proposed Jatun Sacha Biological Reserve, Bilsa, NW Ecuador. Preliminary report of Project Esmeraldas 94. Unpublished.

Clements, J.F. (1991) Birds of the world: a checklist, 4th Ed. Vista, California: Ibis Publishing Company.

Collar, N.J., Gonzaga, L.P., Krabbe, N. Madroño Nieto, L.G., Parker, T.A. III and Wege, D.C. (1992) Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. Cambridge, U.K.: International Council for Bird Preservation.

Collar, N.J., Crosby, M.J. and Stattersfield, A.J. (1994) Birds to watch 2: the world list of threatened birds. Cambridge, U.K.: BirdLife International (BirdLife Conservation Series no. 4).

Dodson, C.H. and Gentry, A.H. (1991) Biological extinction in western Ecuador. Ann: Missouri Bot. Gard. 78: 273-295.

Gentry, A.H. (1992)  Exarata (Bignoniaceae), a new genus from the Chocó region of Ecuador and Colombia. Syst. Bot. 17:503-507.

Hilty, S.L. and Brown, W.L. (1986) A guide to the birds of Colombia. Princeton University.

del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. & Sargatal, J. eds (1994)  Handbook of the Birds of the World Vol 2. New World Vultures to Guineafowl. Lynx Ediciones, Barcelona. 

Mudd, A. (1991) Report on an environmental reconnaissance of the mountains of Chindul and Mache, northern Manabi and southern Esmeraldas provinces, coastal Ecuador. Unpublished  

Parker, T.A.III and Carr, J.L. EDS. (1992) Rapid Assessment Program; status and forest remnants in the Cordillera de la Costa and adjacent areas of southwestern Ecuador. Washington D.C.: Conservation International

Ridgely, R.S. and Tudor, G. (1989) The birds of South America, 1: the oscine passerines. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press.

Ridgely, R.S. and Tudor, G. (1994) The birds of South America, 2: the suboscine passerines. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press.

Appendix 1: Systematic list of birds recorded

Taxonomy, names and sequence follow Clements (1991) with updates from Ridgely and Tudor (1994) and R.S.Ridgely (in litt.). Species in capitals are new records for the reserve.

TINAMIDAE (2)

GREAT TINAMOU, Tinamus major

One or 2 heard daily.

Little Tinamou, Crypturellus soui

Heard more frequently than T.major. A dark tinamou, in primary forest along Green Trail on 17th, appeared too large to be this species and may have been Berlepsch's tinamou, Crypturellus berlepschi (JH).

ARDEIDAE (2)

SNOWY EGRET, Egretta thula

A few individuals along the R. Dógola at the reserve boundary.

Striated Heron, Butorides striatus

A few individuals along the R. Dógola.

CATHARTIDAE (3)

Black Vulture, Coragyps atratus

Up to 3 in the air on several days.

Turkey Vulture, Cathartes aura

Up to 3 in the air when conditions were suitable.

King Vulture, Sarcorhamphus papa

1 in flight on 18th. A species becoming quite rare in western Ecuador (R.S.Ridgely in litt.).

ACCIPITRIDAE (8)

Swallow-tailed Kite, Elanoides forficatus

4 on 5th and a few on later dates soaring high above the forest.

Tiny Hawk, Accipiter superciliosus

Singles on a few days, with a pair on 23rd and a rufous-phase bird caught near the Station on 10th.

Plumbeous Hawk, Leucopternis plumbea

1 perched in lower mid-storey in primary forest, Green Trail on 21st.

Barred Hawk, Leucopternis princeps

Two displaying near the Station every clear day.

Grey-backed Hawk, Leucopternis occidentalis

1 soaring on 19th.

Roadside Hawk, Buteo magnirostris

1 or 2 most days.

Short-tailed Hawk, Buteo brachyurus

1 soaring on 18th.

Black Hawk-Eagle, Spizaetus tyrannus

Singles on a few days.

FALCONIDAE (3)

Laughing Falcon, Herpetotheres cachinnans

1 heard on 10th and a pair seen along the road on 30th.

BARRED FOREST-FALCON, Micrastur ruficollis

Singles on several days, with 3 caught (1 twice), including 1 at an antswarm.

Bat Falcon, Falco rufigularis

A few singles.

CRACIDAE (2)

[BAUDO GUAN, Penelope ortoni]

Not recorded by us but present according to the Reserve guards.

Crested Guan, Penelope purpurascens

Heard on several days.

ODONTOPHORIDAE (1)

Rufous-fronted Wood-Quail, Odontophorus erythrops

Parties heard daily in primary forest.

RALLIDAE (2)

White-throated Crake, Laterallus albigularis

1 caught twice in grassland above the Station.

Brown Wood-Rail, Aramides wolfi

Heard once calling at length from thick undergrowth in forest near the main road to Dógola (KB), and briefer calls from similar habitat nearby on another occasion were thought to have been this species (JH).

EURIPYGIDAE (1)

SUNBITTERN, Eurypyga helias

2 on the Rio Dógola and the Blue Trail creek.

COLUMBIDAE (4)

Ruddy Pigeon, Columba subvinacea

Heard daily and occasionally seen.

Dusky Pigeon, Columba goodsoni

Heard most days, with up to 3 seen on several days, and occasionally seen.

Pallid Dove, Leptotila pallida

Heard most days and occasional singles seen.

INDIGO-CROWNED QUAIL-DOVE, Geotrygon purpurata

First observed feeding along the muddy Green Trail on 11th in secondary forest, on at least 3 occasions, and subsequently in primary forest on the Red Trail.

PSITTACIDAE (7)

Blue-fronted Parrotlet, Touit dilectissima

2 along the Yellow Trail on 15th.

Rose-faced Parrot, Pionopsitta pulchra

Singles on 5th and 19th, and 2 on 13th.

Blue-headed Parrot, Pionus menstruus

Pairs seen or heard on several days.

Bronze-winged Parrot, Pionus chalcopterus

1 or 2 on several days.

RED-MASKED PARAKEET Aratinga erythrogenys

5 pairs in flight at Cerro de los Guerilleros on 24th.

Red-lored Parrot, Amazona autumnalis

2 near the Station on 9th.

Mealy Parrot, Amazona farinosa

Common throughout.

CUCULIDAE (5)

Squirrel Cuckoo, Piaya cayana

Singles on several days.

LITTLE CUCKOO, Piaya minuta

Singles on a few days.

Smooth-billed Ani, Crotophaga ani

Small parties in the vicinity of the roads.

Striped Cuckoo, Tapera naevia

One bird along the road near the Station on 28th

BANDED GROUND-CUCKOO, Neomorphus radiolosus

1 feeding alone in secondary growth near the Station on 6th, and another at an antswarm in primary forest on 15th for several hours at least.

STRIGIDAE (2)

Mottled Owl, Strix virgata

1 or 2 heard on most nights.

SPECTACLED OWL, Pulsatrix perspicillata

Heard calling on at least 1 night.

CAPRIMULGIDAE (2)

Short-tailed Nighthawk, Lurocalis semitorquatus

Seen a few times at dusk near the Station.

PAURAQUE, Nyctidromus albicollis

1 flushed near the Station on 6th, 2 on the road on the night of 15th and 1 heard on 24th.

APODIDAE (3)

White-collared Swift, Streptoprocne zonaris

50+ flew over the Station on 17th.

Band-rumped / Grey-rumped Swift, Chaetura cinereiventris / spinicauda

Small numbers on most days, with larger parties on a few occasions.

Short-tailed Swift, Chaetura brachyura

Large flocks over cacao plantation on 24th.

TROCHILIDAE (11)

Band-tailed Barbthroat, Threnetes ruckeri

Common throughout but less numerous in primary forest than the next species.

White-whiskered Hermit, Phaethornis yaruqui

Common throughout.

Little Hermit, Phaethornis striigularis

Fairly common, mainly in primary forest.

White-tipped Sicklebill, Eutoxeres aquila

Frequently caught but rarely seen.

Green Thorntail, Popelairia conversii

One male feeding on an Inga tree in cacao on 24th.

TOOTH-BILLED HUMMINGBIRD, Androdon aequatorialis

1 caught in primary forest on the Green Trail on 11th.

Green-crowned Woodnymph, Thalurania fannyi

Split from Fork-tailed Woodnymph T. furcata. Common throughout, especially in primary forest.

BLUE-CHESTED HUMMINGBIRD, Amazilia amabilis

1 caught in an open area above the Station on 17th.

Rufous-tailed Hummingbird, Amazilia tzacatl

Seen occasionally in open habitat and 5 caught.

Green-crowned Brilliant, Heliodoxa jacula

6 caught in forest and a few individuals seen.

Purple-crowned Fairy, Heliothryx barroti

Singles in forest on several days.

TROGONIDAE (4)

White-eyed / Black-tailed Trogon, Trogon comptus / melanurus

Single female trogons near the tower on 12th and Green Trail on 15th could have been either species as differentiation is difficult because the western form of T. melanurus also has white eyes.

White-tailed Trogon, Trogon viridis

A single female on 29th perched high above the piscinas.

Collared Trogon, Trogon collaris

1 or 2 most days.

Black-throated Trogon, Trogon rufus

A few singles in primary forest.

ALCEDINIDAE(2)

RINGED KINGFISHER, Ceryle torquata

1 on the Rio Dógola.

AMERICAN PYGMY KINGFISHER, Chloroceryle aenea

1 on the Piscinas Trail creek on 23rd.

MOMOTIDAE (2)

BROAD-BILLED MOTMOT, Electron platyrhynchum

1 on Green Trail on 16th and heard occasionally.

Rufous Motmot, Baryphthengus martii

Heard occasionally.

BUCCONIDAE (2)

White-whiskered Puffbird, Malacoptila panamensis

1 caught in primary forest, Green Trail  on 11th and 2 observed on 14th.

BARRED PUFFBIRD, Nystalus radiatus

1 seen near the Station on 23rd and taped near the Station on 28th.

CAPITONIDAE (2)

Orange-fronted Barbet, Capito squamatus

A male caught in an open area above the Station on 17th.

Red-headed Barbet, Eubucco bourcierii

A female netted in secondary forest on 8th and 1 seen on 13th.

RAMPHASTIDAE (4)

Crimson-rumped Toucanet, Aulacorhynchus haematopygus

1 or 2 several days, with 4 singles caught.

Pale-mandibled Aracari, Pteroglossus erythropygius

Parties of up to 7 most days, with an adult and an immature caught in secondary growth.

Chocó Toucan, Ramphastos brevis

Heard daily and 1 or 2 seen occasionally.

Chestnut-mandibled Toucan, Ramphastos swainsonii

Heard daily and seen occasionally.

PICIDAE (10)

Olivaceous Piculet, Picumnus olivaceus

1 caught in secondary forest near the Station on 6th and 9th, and others heard occasionally.

Black-cheeked Woodpecker, Melanerpes pucherani

1 on the Red Trail on 19th.

Scarlet-backed Woodpecker, Veniliornis callonotus

Several in secondary forest near the Station.

Red-rumped Woodpecker, Veniliornis kirkii

Singles caught on 9th and seen on 10th and 30th, all in secondary forest.

Chocó Woodpecker, Veniliornis chocoensis

A pair in secondary forest on 16th.

Lita Woodpecker, Piculus litae

1 near the road on 10th was the only definite record.

Golden-olive Woodpecker, Piculus rubiginosus

Several sightings including a pair mating on 16th.

Cinnamon Woodpecker, Celeus loricatus

1 on the Green Trail on 16th.

Lineated Woodpecker, Dryocopus lineatus

1 or 2 on a few days.

Guayaquil Woodpecker, Campephilus gayaquilensis

1 or 2 on several days.

DENDROCOLAPTIDAE (6)

Plain-brown Woodcreeper, Dendrocincla fuliginosa

The commonest woodcreeper, with up to 5 daily - always present at antswarms but also found elsewhere.

OLIVACEOUS WOODCREEPER, Sittasomus griseicapillus

A pair on Cerro de los Guerilleros on 26th.

Wedge-billed Woodcreeper, Glyphorhynchus spirurus

Singles caught on 10 occasions in primary and secondary forest, but only seen occasionally.

Black-striped Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus lachrymosus

Singles in feeding parties on the Green Trail on 14th and 15th.

Spotted Woodcreeper, Xiphorhynchus erythropygius

6 singles caught and singles seen a few times.

Streak-headed Woodcreeper, Lepidocolaptes souleyetii

The only record was of 1 caught in secondary growth near the Station on 8th.

FURNARIIDAE (8)

Pale-legged Hornero, Furnarius cinnamomeus

Recent split from Pale-legged Hornero, F. leucopus, east of the Andes (R.S.Ridgely in litt.). Common in open areas.

Slaty Spinetail, Synallaxis brachyura

Common in scrub and secondary growth.

RED-FACED SPINETAIL, Cranioleuca erythrops

1 or 2 in canopy flocks near the Station on several days.

Striped Woodhaunter, Hyloctistes subulatus

1 in a flock by the Green Trail on 13th.

Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner, Automolus ochrolaemus

Two singles in secondary forest at the base of Cerro de los Guerillos on 24th.

RUDDY FOLIAGE-GLEANER, Automolus rubiginosus

1 caught in secondary growth near the Station on 6th was the only record.

TAWNY-THROATED LEAFTOSSER, Sclerurus mexicanus

Singles on the primary forest floor on 22nd, Green Trail and 26th, Red Trail.

Plain Xenops, Xenops minutus

Fairly common member of flocks in primary forest.

THAMNOPHILIDAE (14)

Great Antshrike, Taraba major

Frequently heard and occasionally seen in secondary growth.

WESTERN SLATY ANTSHRIKE, Thamnophilus atrinucha

Singles seen or heard on several days.

Spot-crowned Antvireo, Dysithamnus puncticeps

Occasional in feeding flocks.

Pacific Streaked-Antwren, Myrmotherula pacifica

Recent split from Amazonian Streaked-Antwren, M. surinamensis (R.S.Ridgely in litt.). Occasional in secondary growth, with 3 netted, two twice.

Checker-throated Antwren, Myrmotherula fulviventris

Fairly common in feeding flocks.

White-flanked Antwren, Myrmotherula axillaris

Fairly common in feeding flocks.

Slaty Antwren, Myrmotherula schisticolor

Fairly common member of feeding flocks in primary forest.

Dusky Antbird, Cercomacra tyrannina

A pair in cacao on 24th.

ESMERALDAS ANTBIRD, Myrmeciza nigricauda

1 by the Blue Trail creek on 17th.

Chestnut-backed Antbird, Myrmeciza exsul

Singles seen or heard on a few days.

Immaculate Antbird, Myrmeciza immaculata

2 noted at antswarms in both primary and secondary forest.

Bicoloured Antbird, Gymnopithys leucaspis

The most prominent member of the primary forest antswarm guild.

Spotted Antbird, Hylophylax naevioides

Not present at the primary forest antswarm but 1 seen at a secondary forest antswarm.

OCELLATED ANTBIRD, Phaenostictus mcleannani

The other prominent member of the primary forest antswarm party, with at least 4 apparent and 7 ringed there in 2 days.

FORMICARIIDAE (2)

Black-headed Antthrush, Formicarius nigricapillus

Commonly heard in primary forest and occasionally seen.

Scaled Antpitta, Grallaria guatimalensis

Occasionally heard in primary forest.

COTINGIDAE (6)

Scaled Fruiteater, Ampelioides tschudii

Heard on several days high in primary forest canopy and taped in once.

Black-tipped Cotinga, Carpodectes hopkei

Pairs seen several times from the road, on the Green Trail on 25th and below Cerro de los Guerilleros on 27th.  In addition, 3 males and a female were noted together below the Reserve on 5th.

Rufous Piha, Lipaugus unirufus

Recorded in primary forest on a few days.

Speckled Mourner, Laniocera rufescens

1 in a primary forest Green Trail flock on 14th.

Purple-throated Fruitcrow, Querula purpurata

Heard in primary forest on most days and a few singles seen.

Long-wattled Umbrellabird, Cephalopterus penduliger

The only record was of a female/ immature in secondary growth on the Green Trail on 16th.

PIPRIDAE (6)

Thrush-like Schiffornis, Schiffornis turdinus

Commonly heard in primary forest and occasionally seen.

Red-capped Manakin, Pipra mentalis

Caught in all habitats, mostly female/ immatures, and 1 or 2 leks found.

BLUE-CROWNED MANAKIN, Pipra coronata

A male on the Yellow Trail on 15th.

Golden-winged Manakin, Masius chrysopterus

Rarely seen but by far the most frequently caught mamakin species, the total being 27, all but one of which were in primary forest.

White-bearded Manakin, Manacus manacus

None seen and only 1 caught but occasional wing-cracking sounds could well have been this species. 

Green Manakin, Chloropipo holochlora

Restricted to primary forest where 8 were caught and a few seen.

TYRANNIDAE (24)

Olive-striped Flycatcher, Mionectes olivaceus

A few in primary forest.

Common Tody-Flycatcher, Todirostrum cinereum

Common in secondary growth and scrub.

Golden-faced Tyrannulet, Zimmerius chrysops

Fairly common in secondary growth.

Southern Beardless-Tyrannulet, Camptostoma obsoletum

Common in open areas.

GREENISH ELAENIA, Myiopagis viridicata

2 trapped and 1 observed in secondary growth.

Black-capped Pygmy-Tyrant, Myiornis atricapillus

Only 1 on the edge of Green Trail primary forest but possibly overlooked.

Scale-crested Pygmy-Tyrant, Lophotriccus pileatus

Commonly heard, with a few seen and trapped in secondary forest.

Pacific Flatbill, Rhynchocyclus pacificus

A few sightings and singles caught in primary and secondary forest.

YELLOW-OLIVE/YELLOW-MARGINED FLYCATCHER, Tolmomyias sulphurescens / assimilis

2 Tolmomyias flycatchers in a mixed species flock in cacao on 28th must have been one of these two species.

WHITE-THROATED SPADEBILL, Platyrinchus mystaceus

The only record was 1 caught in Green Trail secondary growth/ heliconias on 10th.

Ornate Flycatcher, Myiotriccus ornatus

Fairly common in primary forest and 1 also trapped in secondary growth.

Bran-coloured Flycatcher, Myiophobus fasciatus

Fairly common in open areas.

Sulphur-rumped Flycatcher, Myiobius barbatus

Singles in primary forest on several days.

Black-tailed Flycatcher, Myiobius atricaudus

1 in secondary growth on 16th.

Smoke-colored Pewee, Contopus fumigatus

Several along the roadside.

Bright-rumped Attila, Attila spadiceus

1 calling persistently near the farmhouse below Cerro de los Guerilleros on 24th, and heard on other days.

Dusky-capped Flycatcher, Myiarchus tuberculifer

A few along the roadside.

Tropical Kingbird, Tyrannus melancholicus

Common in open areas.

SNOWY-THROATED KINGBIRD, Tyrannus niveigularis

Several along the road near the Station on 28th (and seen on the way in to the Reserve).

Boat-billed Flycatcher, Megarhynchus pitangua

1 near the Station on 27th.

Rusty-margined Flycatcher, Myiozetetes cayanensis

Fairly common in open areas.

Cinnamon Becard, Pachyramphus cinnamomeus

Fairly common in secondary growth.

Slaty Becard, Pachyramphus spodiurus

Single female / immatures were seen in humid forest borders near the Station on 15 and 16th.

One-coloured Becard, Pachyramphus homochrous

A few seen and a pair trapped in secondary growth on 8th.

VIREONIDAE (3)

Slaty-capped Shrike-Vireo, Vireolanius leucotis

Commonly heard in primary forest.

RED-EYED VIREO, Vireo olivaceus

A few records in secondary growth, with 1 trapped.

Lesser Greenlet, Hylophilus decurtatus

Fairly common in feeding flocks.

TURDIDAE (3)

SPOTTED NIGHTINGALE-THRUSH, Catharus dryas

Singles in Green Trail primary forest on a few days.

Ecuadorian Thrush, Turdus maculirostris

Commonly heard, a few seen and 2 caught in secondary growth / scrub.

WHITE-THROATED THRUSH, Turdus assimilis

1 bathing in the Blue Trail creek on 17th, and what was thought to be this species was heard singing occasionally in primary forest.

TROGLODYTIDAE (6)

Band-backed Wren, Campylorhynchus zonatus

Common, usually in the canopy.

Bay Wren, Thryothorus nigricapillus

Common in the undergrowth, with 7 individuals caught.

House Wren, Troglodytes aedon

Fairly common, especially around the Station.

Stripe-throated Wren, Thryothorus leucopogon

Commonly heard calling inside forest but never seen.

Southern Nightingale-Wren, Microcerculus marginatus

Heard most days in primary forest and seen occasionally - the scaly-breasted southern form.

Song Wren, Cyphorhinus phaeocephalus

Two singles on the Yellow Trail.

POLIOPTILIDAE (2)

Tawny-faced Gnatwren, Microbates cinereiventris

A few in primary forest, with 2 caught by the Green Trail.

LONG-BILLED GNATWREN, Ramphocaenus melanurus

A single on 17th in primary forest, Green Trail.

HIRUNDINIDAE (3)

Gray-breasted Martin, Progne chalybea

1 in flight on 7th was the only record.

White-thighed Swallow, Neochelidon tibialis

A few along the road.

Southern Rough-winged Swallow, Stelgidopteryx ruficollis

Common around the Station and road.

FRINGILLIDAE (1)

Yellow-bellied Siskin, Carduelis xanthogastra

Heard singing on 19th at ca.700 m. at forest edge near the start of the Red Trail.

PARULIDAE (3)

Olive-crowned Yellowthroat, Geothlypis semiflava

Common in scrubby grassland.

Chocó Warbler, Basileuterus chlorophrys

Recent split from Golden-bellied Warbler, the other form of southern Peru being Cuzco Warbler, B. chrysogaster (R.S.Ridgely, in litt.). Fairly common in primary forest.

Buff-rumped Warbler, Basileuterus fulvicauda

A few near streams in forest.

EMBERIZINAE (8)

Orange-billed Sparrow, Arremon aurantiirostris

A few in forest.

Chestnut-capped Brush-Finch, Buarremon buarremon

2 caught in primary forest and 1 in secondary.

Blue-black Grassquit, Volatinia jacarina

Fairly common in grassland and roadsides.

Variable Seedeater, Sporophila aurita

Abundant in open areas.

Yellow-bellied Seedeater, Sporophila nigricollis

Common in grassland.

Seedeater species, Sporophila sp.

2 small, plain imm./female sporophila caught in secondary forest were neither of the above species; the most likely candidate being Slate-coloured Seedeater, S. schistacea.

LESSER SEED-FINCH, Oryzoborus angolensis

A few singles in primary forest including 1 trapped.

Dull-coloured Grassquit, Tiaris obscura

Common in open areas.

THRAUPIDAE (16)

Bananaquit, Coereba flaveola

Common throughout.

Yellow-throated Bush-Tanager, Chlorospingus flavigularis

Common throughout.

Dusky-faced Tanager, Mitrospingus cassinii

A few in secondary growth.

Ochre-breasted Tanager, Chlorothraupis stolzmanni

Fairly common in parties in primary forest.

Tawny-crested Tanager, Tachyphonus delatrii

A few in primary forest; an adult male and a presumed imm. male moulting into adult plumage were trapped.

Lemon- / Flame-rumped Tanager, Ramphocelus flammigerus icteronotus

Common throughout.

Blue-grey Tanager, Thraupis episcopus

Common in secondary growth.

Palm Tanager, Thraupis palmarum

Common in secondary growth and scrub..

Thick-billed Euphonia, Euphonia laniirostris

Fairly common in secondary growth.

Orange-bellied Euphonia, Euphonia xanthogaster

Common in forest, especially primary where 7 were caught.

Emerald Tanager, Tangara florida

Fairly common in secondary growth and scrub.

Silver-throated Tanager, Tangara icterocephala

The commonest tanager, with 16 caught in secondary forest and 6 in scrub.

Bay-headed Tanager, Tangara gyrola

Common in secondary forest.

Blue-necked Tanager, Tangara cyanicollis

Fairly common in forest.

YELLOW-TUFTED DACNIS, Dacnis egregia

A few in forest feeding flocks on several days.

Green Honeycreeper, Chlorophanes spiza

Surprisingly scarce with only a few records but possibly overlooked.

Blue Dacnis, Dacnis cayana

1 in a mixed tanager flock in secondary forest near the Station.

CARDINALINAE (3)

Slate-coloured Grosbeak, Saltator grossus

Heard most days and seen occasionally.

Buff-throated Saltator, Saltator maximus

Fairly common in scrub and roadsides.

Black-winged Saltator, Saltator atripennis

Several in secondary growth.

ICTERINAE (2)

Chestnut-headed Oropendola, Zarhynchus wagleri

Fairly commonly heard and seen occasionally.

Scarlet-rumped Cacique, Cacicus microrhynchus

Commonly heard and seen occasionally.

 

Additional species recorded below the reserve:-

Ecuadorian Ground-Dove, Columbina buckleyi

Split from Ruddy Ground-Dove C. talpacoti. Fairly common along the road.

Pacific Parrotlet, Forpus coelestis

Several pairs of Forpus sp., presumably this one - a Tumbesian endemic, were seen well below the Reserve..

Green Kingfisher, Chloroceryle americana

A few along the R. Dógola  near Dógola town..

 

Appendix 2: BIRD LIST FOR BILSA BIOLOGICAL RESERVE, ESMERALDAS, ECUADOR

Compiled by Jon Hornbuckle, November 1996

This list is based on the records of Project Esmeraldas 94 (observations from 12th Feb- 2nd March 94), Byron Swift’s observations on 26-29th November 95 and Project Mache Chindul 96 (observations and trapping from 6th - 30th September 96), with a few additions from Dave Willis (1995). Species in parenthesis have a small element of uncertainty on occurrence. Taxonomy,  names and sequence follow Clements (1991) with updates from Ridgely and Tudor (1994) and R.S.Ridgely (in litt.).

Dates of recording are given in the third column if the species was  found in only one year. The Status column indicates whether the species is a Tumbesian (T) or strict Chocó (Ch) endemic, according to BirdLife International, or largely restricted to the Chocó region ([Ch]) and if it is endangered (e), vulnerable (v) or near-threatened (nt) according to Collar et al (1994).

Estimated abundance:   C  common - recorded daily

                                    F  fairly common - most days

                                    U  uncommon - a minority of days

                                    R  rare - only 1 or 2 records

                                    V  vagrant 

 

ENGLISH NAME

 

SCIENTIFIC NAME

Year

Status

Abundance

Great Tinamou

Tinamus major

1996

 

U

Little Tinamou

Crypturellus soui

 

 

F

Magnificent Frigatebird

Fregata magnificens

1994

 

V

Snowy Egret

Egretta thula

1996

 

U

Striated Heron

Butorides striatus

 

 

U

Black Vulture

Coragyps atratus

 

 

U

Turkey Vulture

Cathartes aura

 

 

F

King Vulture

Sarcorhamphus papa

 

 

R

Swallow-tailed Kite

Elanoides forficatus

 

 

U

Double-toothed Kite

Harpagus bidentatus

1994

 

R

Plumbeous Kite

Ictinia plumbea

1994

 

U

Tiny Hawk

Accipiter superciliosus

 

 

U

Bicoloured Hawk

Accipiter bicolor

1994

 

R

Plumbeous Hawk

Leucopternis plumbea

 

nt

R

Barred Hawk

Leucopternis princeps

 

 

F

Grey-backed Hawk

Leucopternis occidentalis

 

T, e

R

Great Black-Hawk

Buteogallus urubitinga

1994

 

R

Roadside Hawk

Buteo magnirostris

 

 

C

Short-tailed Hawk

Buteo brachyurus

 

 

R

Zone-tailed Hawk

Buteo albonotatus

1994

 

R

Black-and-white Hawk-Eagle

Spizastur melanoleucus

1994

 

R

Black Hawk-Eagle

Spizaetus tyrannus

 

 

R

Ornate Hawk-Eagle

Spizaetus ornatus

 

 

R

Laughing Falcon

Herpetotheres cachinnans

 

 

U

Barred Forest-Falcon

Micrastur ruficollis

1996

 

U

Bat Falcon

Falco rufigularis

 

 

R

[Baudo Guan

Penelope ortoni]

1996

Ch

R

Crested Guan

Penelope purpurascens

 

 

U

Rufous-fronted Wood-Quail

Odontophorus erythrops

 

 

C

Tawny-faced Quail

Rhynchortyx cinctus

1994

 

R

White-throated Crake

Laterallus albigularis

 

 

U

Brown Wood-Rail

Aramides wolfi

 

[Ch], v

R

Sunbittern

Eurypyga helias

1996

 

U

Scaled Pigeon

Columba speciosa

 

 

R

Ruddy Pigeon

Columba subvinacea

 

 

C

Dusky Pigeon

Columba goodsoni

 

Ch

F

Pallid Dove

Leptotila pallida

 

[Ch]

F

Indigo-crowned Quail-Dove

Geotrygon purpurata

1996

Ch

U

Ruddy Quail-Dove

Geotrygon montana

1994

 

R

Blue-fronted Parrotlet

Touit dilectissima

 

 

U

Rose-faced Parrot

Pionopsitta pulchra

 

Ch

U

Blue-headed Parrot

Pionus menstruus

 

 

F

Bronze-winged Parrot

Pionus chalcopterus

 

 

F

Red-masked Parakeet

Aratinga erythrogenys

1996

T, nt

R

Red-lored Parrot

Amazona autumnalis

 

 

R

Mealy Parrot

Amazona farinosa

 

 

C

Squirrel Cuckoo

Piaya cayana

 

 

F

Little Cuckoo

Piaya minuta

1996

 

U

Smooth-billed Ani

Crotophaga ani

 

 

R

Striped Cuckoo

Tapera naevia

 

 

R

Banded Ground-Cuckoo

Neomorphus radiolosus

1996

Ch, e

R

Mottled Owl

Strix virgata

 

 

F

Crested Owl

Lophostrix cristata

 

 

R

Spectacled Owl

Pulsatrix perspicillata

1996

 

R

Gray Potoo

Nyctibius griseus

1994

 

R

Short-tailed Nighthawk

Lurocalis semitorquatus

 

 

U

Pauraque

Nyctidromus albicollis

1996

 

U

White-collared Swift

Streptoprocne zonaris

 

 

U

Chestnut-collared Swift

Streptoprocne rutila

1994

 

V

Band-rumped Swift

Chaetura spinicauda

 

 

R

Gray-rumped Swift

Chaetura cinereiventris

 

 

U

Short-tailed Swift

Chaetura brachyura

 

 

R

[White-tipped Swift

Aeronautes montivagus]

1994

 

V

Lesser Swallow-tailed Swift

Panyptila cayennensis

1994

 

R

Bronzy Hermit

Glaucis aenea

1994

 

C

Band-tailed Barbthroat

Threnetes ruckeri

 

 

C

White-whiskered Hermit

Phaethornis yaruqui

 

[Ch]

R

Long-tailed Hermit

Phaethornis superciliosus

1994

 

F

Little Hermit

Phaethornis striigularis

 

 

 

White-tipped Sicklebill

Eutoxeres aquila

 

 

C

Tooth-billed Hummingbird

Androdon aequatorialis

1996

[Ch]

R

White-necked Jacobin

Florisuga mellivora

 

 

R

Green Thorntail

Popelairia conversii

 

 

R

Blue-tailed Emerald

Chlorostilbon mellisugus

1994

 

R

Green-crowned Woodnymph

Thalurania fannyi

 

[Ch]

C

Violet-bellied Hummingbird

Damophila julie

1994

[Ch]

R

Blue-chested Hummingbird

Amazilia amabilis

1996

 

R

Rufous-tailed Hummingbird

Amazilia tzacatl

 

 

F

Green-crowned Brilliant

Heliodoxa jacula

 

[Ch]

U

Purple-crowned Fairy

Heliothryx barroti

 

 

U

Black-tailed Trogon

Trogon melanurus

1994

 

U

White-eyed Trogon

Trogon comptus

 

Ch

U

White-tailed Trogon

Trogon viridis

 

 

U

Collared Trogon

Trogon collaris

 

 

C

Black-throated Trogon

Trogon rufus

 

 

U

Ringed Kingfisher

Ceryle torquata

1996

 

R

Green Kingfisher

Chloroceryle americana

 

 

R

American Pygmy Kingfisher

Chloroceryle aenea

1996

 

R

Broad-billed Motmot

Electron platyrhynchum

1996

 

U

Rufous Motmot

Baryphthengus martii

 

 

U

White-whiskered Puffbird

Malacoptila panamensis

 

 

U

Barred Puffbird

Nystalus radiatus

1996

 

R

Orange-fronted Barbet

Capito squamatus

 

Ch, nt

U

Red-headed Barbet

Eubucco bourcierii

 

 

U

Crimson-rumped Toucanet

Aulacorhynchus haematopygus

 

 

F

Pale-mandibled Aracari

Pteroglossus erythropygius

 

Ch

F

Chocó Toucan

Ramphastos brevis

 

Ch

C

Chestnut-mandibled Toucan

Ramphastos swainsonii

 

 

C

Olivaceous Piculet

Picumnus olivaceus

 

 

F

Black-cheeked Woodpecker

Melanerpes pucherani

 

 

U

Scarlet-backed Woodpecker

Veniliornis callonotus

 

 

U

Red-rumped Woodpecker

Veniliornis kirkii

 

 

U

Chocó Woodpecker

Veniliornis chocoensis

 

Ch, nt

R

Lita Woodpecker

Piculus litae

 

Ch

R

Golden-olive Woodpecker

Piculus rubiginosus

 

 

F

Cinnamon Woodpecker

Celeus loricatus

 

 

R

Lineated Woodpecker

Dryocopus lineatus

 

 

U

Guayaquil Woodpecker

Campephilus gayaquilensis

 

 

U

Plain-brown Woodcreeper

Dendrocincla fuliginosa

 

 

C

Olivaceous Woodcreeper

Sittasomus griseicapillus

1996

 

R

Wedge-billed Woodcreeper

Glyphorhynchus spirurus

 

 

F

Barred Woodcreeper

Dendrocolaptes certhia

1994

 

R

Black-striped Woodcreeper

Xiphorhynchus lacrymosus

 

 

U

Spotted Woodcreeper

Xiphorhynchus erythropygius

 

 

F

Streak-headed Woodcreeper

Lepidocolaptes souleyetii

 

 

R

Red-billed Scythebill

Campylorhamphus trochilirostris

1994

 

R

Pacific Hornero

Furnarius cinnamomeus

 

 

C

Slaty Spinetail

Synallaxis brachyura

 

 

C

Red-faced Spinetail

Cranioleuca erythrops

1996

 

F

Striped Woodhaunter

Hyloctistes subulatus

 

 

R

Scaly-throated Foliage-gleanr

Anabacerthia variegaticeps

1994

 

R

Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner

Automolus ochrolaemus

 

 

U

Ruddy Foliage-gleaner

Automolus rubiginosus

1996

 

R

Tawny-throated Leaftosser

Sclerurus mexicanus

1996

 

R

Plain Xenops

Xenops minutus

 

 

F

Fasciated Antshrike

Cymbilaimus lineatus

1994

 

R

Great Antshrike

Taraba major

 

 

C

Western Slaty Antshrike

Thamnophilus atrinucha

1996

 

U

Russet Antshrike

Thamnistes anabatinus

1994

 

R

Spot-crowned Antvireo

Dysithamnus puncticeps

 

 

U

Pacific Streaked-Antwren

Myrmotherula pacifica

 

 

U

Checker-throated Antwren

Myrmotherula fulviventris

 

 

F

White-flanked Antwren

Myrmotherula axillaris

 

 

F

Slaty Antwren

Myrmotherula schisticolor

 

 

F

Dot-winged Antwren

Microrhopias quixensis

 

 

R

Dusky Antbird

Cercomacra tyrannina

 

 

R

Esmeraldas Antbird

Myrmeciza nigricauda

1996

[Ch]

R

Chestnut-backed Antbird

Myrmeciza exsul

 

 

U

Immaculate Antbird

Myrmeciza immaculata

 

 

U

Bicoloured Antbird

Gymnopithys leucaspis

 

 

U

Spotted Antbird

Hylophylax naevioides

 

 

R

Ocellated Antbird

Phaenostictus mcleannani

1996

 

U

Black-headed Antthrush

Formicarius nigricapillus

 

 

C

Scaled Antpitta

Grallaria guatimalensis

 

 

U

Scaled Fruiteater

Ampelioides tschudii

 

nt

U

Black-tipped Cotinga

Carpodectes hopkei

 

[Ch] nt

U

Rufous Piha

Lipaugus unirufus

 

 

U

Speckled Mourner

Laniocera rufescens

 

 

R

Purple-throated Fruitcrow

Querula purpurata

 

 

F

Long-wattled Umbrellabird

Cephalopterus penduliger

 

Ch, v

R/F

Thrush-like Schiffornis

Schiffornis turdinus

 

 

F

Red-capped Manakin

Pipra mentalis

 

 

C

Blue-crowned Manakin

Pipra coronata

1996

 

R

Golden-winged Manakin

Masius chrysopterus

 

 

C

White-bearded Manakin

Manacus manacus

 

 

R

Green Manakin

Chloropipo holochlora

 

 

F

Olive-striped Flycatcher

Mionectes olivaceus

 

 

U

Common Tody-Flycatcher

Todirostrum cinereum

 

 

C

Sooty-headed Tyrannulet

Phyllomyias griseiceps

1994

 

R

Golden-faced Tyrannulet

Zimmerius chrysops

 

 

F

Brown-capped Tyrannulet

Ornithion brunneicapillum

1994

 

R

Southern Beardless-Tyrannult

Camptostoma obsoletum

 

 

C

Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet

Tyrannulus elatus

1994

 

R

Greenish Elaenia

Myiopagis viridicata

1996

 

U

Yellow-bellied Elaenia

Elaenia flavogaster

1994

 

R

Black-capped Pygmy-Tyrant

Myiornis atricapillus

 

 

R

Scale-crested Pygmy-Tyrant

Lophotriccus pileatus

 

 

C

Pacific Flatbill

Rhynchocyclus pacificus

 

[Ch]

U

Yellow-olive/Yellow-margined Flycatcher

Tolmomyias sulphurescens/ assimilis

1996

 

R

White-throated Spadebill

Platyrinchus mystaceus

1996

 

R

Ornate Flycatcher

Myiotriccus ornatus

 

 

F

Bran-coloured Flycatcher

Myiophobus fasciatus

 

 

F

Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher

Myiobius erythrurus

1994

 

R

Sulphur-rumped Flycatcher

Myiobius barbatus

 

 

U

Black-tailed Flycatcher

Myiobius atricaudus

 

 

R

Olive-sided Flycatcher

Contopus borealis

1994

 

R

Smoke-colored Pewee

Contopus fumigatus

 

 

F

[Acadian Flycatcher

Empidonax virescens]

1994

 

R

Long-tailed Tyrant

Colonia colonus

1994

 

R

Bright-rumped Attila

Attila spadiceus

 

 

U

Rufous Mourner

Rhytipterna holerythra

1994

 

R

Sirystes

Sirystes sibilator

1994

 

R

Dusky-capped Flycatcher

Myiarchus tuberculifer

 

 

U

Tropical Kingbird

Tyrannus melancholicus

 

 

C

Snowy-throated Kingbird

Tyrannus niveigularis

1996

 

U

Boat-billed Flycatcher

Megarhynchus pitangua

 

 

R

White-ringed Flycatcher

Conopias albovittata

1994

 

R

Streaked Flycatcher

Myiodynastes maculatus

 

 

R

Rusty-margined Flycatcher

Myiozetetes cayanensis

 

 

F

Cinnamon Becard

Pachyramphus cinnamomeus

 

 

F

Black-and-white Becard

Pachyramphus albogriseus

1995

 

R

[Slaty Becard

Pachyramphus spodiurus]

 

T, nt

R

One-coloured Becard

Pachyramphus homochrous

 

 

U

Masked Tityra

Tityra semifasciata

1994

 

U

Black-crowned Tityra

Tityra inquisitor

1994

 

R

Slaty-capped Shrike-Vireo

Vireolanius leucotis

 

 

F

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

1996

 

U

Lesser Greenlet

Hylophilus decurtatus

 

[Ch]

F

Spotted Nightingale-Thrush

Catharus dryas

1996

 

U

Ecuadorian Thrush

Turdus maculirostris

 

T

C

White-throated Thrush

Turdus assimilis

1996

[Ch]

U

Band-backed Wren

Campylorhynchus zonatus

 

 

C

Bay Wren

Thryothorus nigricapillus

 

 

C

Stripe-throated Wren

Thryothorus leucopogon

 

 

F

House Wren

Troglodytes aedon

 

 

C

Southern Nightingale-Wren

Microcerculus marginatus

 

 

F

Song Wren

Cyphorhinus phaeocephalus

 

 

R

Tawny-faced Gnatwren

Microbates cinereiventris

 

 

U

Long-billed Gnatwren

Ramphocaenus melanurus

1996

 

R

Tropical Gnatcatcher

Polioptila plumbea

 

 

R

Grey-breasted Martin

Progne chalybea

 

 

U

Blue-and-white Swallow

Notiochelidon cyanoleuca

1994

 

R

White-thighed Swallow

Neochelidon tibialis

 

 

U

Southn Rough-wingd Swallow

Stelgidopteryx ruficollis

 

 

C

Yellow-bellied Siskin

Carduelis xanthogastra

 

 

R

Olive-crowned Yellowthroat

Geothlypis semiflava

 

 

C

Golden-bellied Warbler

Basileuterus chrysogaster

 

 

F

Buff-rumped Warbler

Basileuterus fulvicauda

 

 

U

Orange-billed Sparrow

Arremon aurantiirostris

 

 

U

Black-striped Sparrow

Arremonops conirostris

1994

 

R

Chestnut-capped Brush-Finch

Buarremon brunneinucha

 

 

U

Blue-black Grassquit

Volatinia jacarina

 

 

C

Variable Seedeater

Sporophila aurita

 

 

C

Yellow-bellied Seedeater

Sporophila nigricollis

 

 

C

Chestnut-throated Seedeater

Sporophila telasco

1994

 

R

Lesser Seed-Finch

Oryzoborus angolensis

1996

 

U

Dull-coloured Grassquit

Tiaris obscura

 

 

 

Bananaquit

Coereba flaveola

 

 

C

Yellow-throated Bush-Tanager

Chlorospingus flavigularis

 

 

C

Dusky-faced Tanager

Mitrospingus cassinii

 

[Ch]

U

Ochre-breasted Tanager

Chlorothraupis stolzmanni

 

[Ch]

F

White-shouldered Tanager

Tachyphonus luctuosus

1994

 

R

Tawny-crested Tanager

Tachyphonus delatrii

 

 

U

Summer Tanager

Piranga rubra

1994

 

R

Lemon-/ Flame-rumped Tanager

Ramphocelus flammigerus icteronotus

 

 

C

Blue-gray Tanager

Thraupis episcopus

 

 

C

Palm Tanager

Thraupis palmarum

 

 

C

Thick-billed Euphonia

Euphonia laniirostris

 

 

F

Orange-bellied Euphonia

Euphonia xanthogaster

 

 

C

Gray-and-gold Tanager

Tangara palmeri

1994

[Ch]

R

Blue-whiskered Tanager

Tangara johannae

1994

Ch, nt

R

Emerald Tanager

Tangara florida

 

 

F

Silver-throated Tanager

Tangara icterocephala

 

 

C

Bay-headed Tanager

Tangara gyrola

 

 

C

Blue-necked Tanager

Tangara cyanicollis

 

 

F

Golden-hooded Tanager

Tangara larvata

 

 

R

Yellow-tufted Dacnis

Dacnis egregia

1996

 

U

Scarlet-thighed Dacnis

Dacnis venusta

1994

 

R

Blue Dacnis

Dacnis cayana

 

 

R

Green Honeycreeper

Chlorophanes spiza

 

 

U

Purple Honeycreeper

Cyanerpes caeruleus

1994

 

R

Slate-coloured Grosbeak

Saltator grossus

 

 

F

Buff-throated Saltator

Saltator maximus

 

 

F

Black-winged Saltator

Saltator atripennis

 

 

U

Blue-black Grosbeak

Cyanocompsa cyanoides

1994

 

R

Chestnut-headed Oropendola

Zarynchus wagleri

 

 

F

Scarlet-rumped Cacique

Cacicus microrhynchus

 

 

C

Yellow-tailed Oriole

Icterus mesomelas

1994

 

R

Shiny Cowbird

Molothrus bonariensis

1994

 

R

Giant Cowbird

Scaphidura oryzivora

1994

 

R

 

Discounted Records given in Clay et al. (1994)

Swainson's Hawk, Buteo swainsonii - rare in Ecuador and flight identification can be suspect

1

Great Currasow, Crax rubra - unlikely, due to past hunting pressure, and not seen well. This species has never been seen for certain in Ecuador (R.S.Ridgely, in litt.).

Chimney Swift, Chaetura pelagica - difficult to identify and rare in western South America

Azara’s Spinetail, Synallaxis azarae - probably misidentified S.erythrops

White-necked Thrush, Turdus albicollis - does not occur on Pacific slope, replaced by T. assimilis

Potential additions

Slaty-capped Flycatcher, Leptopogon superciliaris¼.

Pacific Elaenia, Elaenia subplacens - both these species reported by D. Wolf in Oct 96.

Smoky-brown Woodpecker, Veniliornis fumigatus¼.

Rufous-rumped Antwren, Terenura callinota

Tawny-breasted Flycatcher, Myiobius villosus¼.

Eastern Wood-Pewee, Contopus virens¼.

Scarlet-browed Tanager, Heterospingus xanthopygius - these species are listed on Jatun Sacha’s provisional list of birds recorded in the Reserve.


Additional species recorded at Cabeceras de Bilsa by the RAP team in Jan 91

Rufous-headed Chachalaca, Ortalis erythroptera

White-vented Plumeteer, Chalybura buffonii

White-necked Puffbird, Notharchus macrorhynchos

Lanceolated Monklet, Micromonacha lanceolata

Grey Elaenia, Myiopagis caniceps

Golden-crowned Spadebill, Platyrinchus coronatus                             

Ochraceous Attila, Attila torridus

White-winged Becard, Pachyramphus polychopterus

Chestnut-breasted Wren, Cyphorinus thoracicus

Blackburnian Warbler, Dendroica fusca

Bay-breasted Warbler, Dendroica castanea

American Redstart, Setophaga ruticilla

Scarlet-browed Tanager, Heterospingus xanthopygius

Fulvous-vented Euphonia, Euphonia fulvicrissa

Rose-breasted Grosbeak, Pheucticus ludovicianus

 

Appendix 3: Numbers of birds trapped on the reserve

Species in Bold were only recorded by trapping

 


 

Total

Primy forest

Secndy forest

Scrub/grass

Tiny Hawk

Accipiter superciliosus

1

 

1

 

Roadside Hawk

Buteo magnirostris

1

 

1

 

Barred Forest-Falcon

Micrastur ruficollis

3

1

2

 

White-throated Crake

Laterallus albigularis

1

 

 

1

Little Cuckoo

Piaya minuta

1

 

1

 

Band-tailed Barbthroat

Threnetes ruckeri

38

8

27

3

White-whiskered Hermit

Phaethornis yaruqui

37

21

16

 

Little Hermit

Phaethornis striigularis

5

3

1

1

White-tipped Sicklebill

Eutoxeres aquila

20-

11

8

1

Tooth-billed Hummingbird

Androdon aequatorialis

1

1

 

 

Green-crowned Woodnymph

Thalurania fannyi

17

12

3

2

Blue-chested Hummingbd

Amazilia amabilis

1

 

 

1

Rufous-tailed Hummingbird

Amazilia tzacatl

5

 

4

1

Green-crowned Brilliant

Heliodoxa jacula

6

4

2

 

Collared Trogon

Trogon collaris

1

 

1

 

White-whiskered Puffbird

Malacoptila panamensis

1

1

 

 

Orange-fronted Barbet

Capito squamatus

1

 

 

1

Red-headed Barbet

Eubucco bourcierii

1

 

1

 

Crimson-rumped Toucanet

Aulacorhynchus haematopygus

4

1

3

 

Pale-mandibled Aracari

Pteroglossus erythropygius

2

 

2

 

Olivaceous Piculet

Picumnus olivaceus

1

 

1

 

Red-rumped Woodpecker

Veniliornis kirkii

1

 

1

 

Golden-olive Woodpecker

Piculus rubiginosus

1

 

1

 

Plain-brown Woodcreeper

Dendrocincla fuliginosa

7

4

3

 

Wedge-billed Woodcreeper

Glyphorhynchus spirurus

10

4

6

 

Spotted Woodcreeper

Xiphorhynchus erythropygius

6

3

3

 

Streak-headed Woodcrepr

Lepidocolaptes souleyetii

1

 

1

 

Slaty Spinetail

Synallaxis brachyura

10

 

7

3

Ruddy Foliage-gleaner

Automolus rubiginosus

1

 

1

 

Plain Xenops

Xenops minutus

1

1

 

 

Great Antshrike

Taraba major

1

 

1

 

Western Slaty Antshrike

Thamnophilus atrinucha

1

 

1

 

Pacific Streaked-Antwren

Myrmotherula pacifica

3

 

3

 

Checker-throated Antwren

Myrmotherula fulviventris

2

1

1

 

Bicoloured Antbird

Gymnopithys leucaspis

5

5

 

 

Ocellated Antbird

Phaenostictus mcleannani

7

7

 

 

Thrush-like Schiffornis

Schiffornis turdinus

6

6

 

 

Red-capped Manakin

Pipra mentalis

11

3

6

2

Golden-winged Manakin

Masius chrysopterus

27

26

1

 

White-bearded Manakin

Manacus manacus

1

1

 

 

Green Manakin

Chloropipo holochlora

8

8

 

 

Olive-striped Flycatcher

Mionectes olivaceus

2

2

 

 

Common Tody-Flycatcher

Todirostrum cinereum

9

 

1

8

Golden-faced Tyrannulet

Zimmerius chrysops

1

 

1

 

Southern Beardless-Tyrnulet

Camptostoma obsoletum

4

 

2

2

Greenish Elaenia

Myiopagis viridicata

2

 

2

 

Scale-crested Pygmy-Tyrant

Lophotriccus pileatus

4

 

4

 

Pacific Flatbill

Rhynchocyclus pacificus

2

1

1

 

White-throated Spadebill

Platyrinchus mystaceus

1

 

1

 

Ornate Flycatcher

Myiotriccus ornatus

8

7

1

 

Bran-colored Flycatcher

Myiophobus fasciatus

3

 

2

1

Sulphur-rumped Flycatcher

Myiobius barbatus

1

1

 

 

Rusty-margined Flycatcher

Myiozetetes cayanensis

1

 

 

1

Cinnamon Becard

Pachyramphus cinnamomeus

1

 

1

 

One-coloured Becard

Pachyramphus homochrous

2

 

2

 

Red-eyed Vireo

Vireo olivaceus

1

 

 

1

Ecuadorian Thrush

Turdus maculirostris

2

 

1

1

Bay Wren

Thryothorus nigricapillus

7

 

6

1

House Wren

Troglodytes aedon

2

 

1

1

Southern Nightingale-Wren

Microcerculus marginatus

1

1

 

 

Tawny-faced Gnatwren

Microbates cinereiventris

2

2

 

 

Southrn Rough-wingd Swlow

Stelgidopteryx ruficollis

2

 

 

2

Olive-crowned Yellowthroat

Geothlypis semiflava

4

 

1

3

Buff-rumped Warbler

Basileuterus fulvicauda

1

1

 

 

Orange-billed Sparrow

Arremon aurantiirostris

2

1

1

 

Chestnut-capped Brush-Fch

Buarremon brunneinucha

3

2

1

 

Blue-black Grassquit

Volatinia jacarina

2

 

 

2

Variable Seedeater

Sporophila aurita

28

 

13

15

Yellow-bellied Seedeater

Sporophila nigricollis

11

 

1

10

[Slate-coloured Seedeater

Sporophila minuta]

2

 

2

 

Lesser Seed-Finch

Oryzoborus  angolensis

1

1

 

 

Dull-coloured Grassquit

Tiaris obscura

16

1

3

12

Bananaquit

Coereba flaveola

14

3

4

7

Yellow-throated Bush-Tnger

Chlorospingus flavigularis

1

 

 

1

Ochre-breasted Tanager

Chlorothraupis stolzmanni

14

14

 

 

Tawny-crested Tanager

Tachyphonus delatrii

2

2

 

 

Lemon- / Flame-rumped Tanager

Ramphocelus flammigerus icteronotus

6

1

4

1

Blue-grey Tanager

Thraupis episcopus

1

 

 

1

Palm Tanager

Thraupis palmarum

11

 

4

7

Thick-billed Euphonia

Euphonia laniirostris

2

 

 

2

Orange-bellied Euphonia

Euphonia xanthogaster

11

7

4

 

Emerald Tanager

Tangara florida

3

 

1

2

Silver-throated Tanager

Tangara icterocephala

22

 

16

6

Bay-headed Tanager

Tangara gyrola

8

 

8

 

Blue-necked Tanager

Tangara cyanicollis

2

 

1

1

Green Honeycreeper

Chlorophanes spiza

1

 

1

 

Slate-colored Grosbeak

Saltator grossus

2

 

1

1

Buff-throated Saltator

Saltator maximus

1

 

 

1

Black-winged Saltator

Saltator atripennis

1

 

1

 

.

.

.

 

 

 

TOTAL

89 species

488

178

205

105

 

Appendix 4: Notes on mammals

Observations are offered on some of the larger mammals present in the reserve. Records were made on a purely opportunistic basis and local reports were also noted. This list is by no means intended to be exhaustive.

Felids

Little information was gained about the status of the larger predators, Jaguar, Panthera onca and Puma, Felis concolor. Both were reported to be present but presumably in very small numbers. The remaining forest does not appear to be large enough to support sustainable populations and the ability of these species to survive in the long term would seem unlikely. A locally captured Jaguar cub was seen and photographed in December 1993, but was reported to have died. Tracks of a large cat, thought to be Puma, were seen on 22nd. Smaller tracks were also observed, which could have been of Ocelot, Felis pardalis, Margay, F. weidii, or Jaguarundi,  F. yagouroundi. Clay et al (1994) also reported the presence of Oncilla F. tigrina.

Mantled Howler Monkey  Alouatta palliata

Alouatta palliata, listed as endangered on CITES Appendix I, is the most noticeable of the mammals and has been adopted as an emblem of the Reserve. A sizeable population appears to exist and seems unconcerned by the presence of humans, indicative of the absence of serious hunting. Male howlers were heard every day and groups observed on at least four occasions without any special effort being made to locate them. In common with the observations of Clay et al, group sizes appeared to be small - perhaps between 4 and 10 individuals, although some individuals may have been overlooked.

Capuchin Monkey (“mico”)  Cebus sp.

Capuchin monkeys were glimpsed on a few occasions but as they were quieter and shyer than howlers, it was not possible to estimate the size of the population. Clay et al. define them as C. capuchinus, which appears to have a more northerly distribution than the more commonly cited taxon in the RAP report C. albifrons.  It seems possible that C. albifrons rather than, or as well as, C. capuchinus is present in the Reserve. There is then also the question of whether this would be the endemic form C. a. aequatorialis which has been recorded elsewhere in western Ecuador but whose status is uncertain (p.61 in Parker and Carr, 1992).

Squirrels

Squirrels were common but not identified to species level. The Neotropical Red Squirrel,  Sciurus granatensis was recorded extensively by the RAP team and Clay et al., who also reported the Neotropical Dwarf Squirrel,  Microsciurus mimulus as common. The latter was not observed by RAP and it is unclear how widespread this species might be.

Paca (“guanta”)  Agouti paca

Undoubtedly common and frequently hunted by the local people.

Agouti (“guatusa” or “checa”)  Dasyprocta punctata

This common diurnal mammal was observed once when aggressively alarmed, probably from hearing it’s own call played back.  

Coati (“cuchucho”) Nasua nasua

Reported to be seen in large groups from time to time. Individuals fed on bananas near the Station on several occasions.

Tayra (“mate de cabeza”)  Eira barbara

Not uncommon, according to informants, with one seen near the Station on 30th.

Three-toed Sloth  Bradypus variegatus

A dead sloth, probably of this species, was found on 22nd in intervened forest among the branches of a felled tree.  It had probably been crushed.

Peccaries

Both Collared Peccary (“zaino”), Tayassu tajacu and White-lipped Peccary (“bravo”), T. pecari were said to be present. T. pecari was served for dinner on one occasion.

 

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